On a summer’s day in 1890, Vincent Van Gogh shot himself in a field outside Paris. What does the painting he worked on that morning tell us about his mental state?
On 27 July 1890, Vincent Van Gogh walked into a wheat field behind the chateau in the French village of Auvers-sur-Oise, a few miles north of Paris, and shot himself in the chest. For 18 months he had been suffering from mental illness, ever since he had sliced off his left ear with a razor one December night in 1888, while living in Arles in Provence.
In the aftermath of that notorious incident of self-harm, he continued to experience sporadic and debilitating attacks that left him confused or incoherent for days or weeks at a time. In between these breakdowns, though, he enjoyed spells of calmness and lucidity in which he was able to paint. Indeed, his time in Auvers, where he arrived in May 1890, after leaving a psychiatric institution just outside Saint-Remy-de-Provence, north-east of Arles, was the most productive period of his career: in 70 days, he finished 75 paintings and more than 100 drawings and sketches.
Despite this, though, he felt increasingly lonely and anxious, and became convinced that his life was a failure. Eventually, he got hold of a small revolver that belonged to the owner of his lodging house in Auvers. This was the weapon he took into the fields on that climactic Sunday afternoon in late July. However, the gun was only a pocket revolver, with limited firepower, and so when he pulled the trigger, the bullet ricocheted off a rib, and failed to pierce his heart. Van Gogh lost consciousness and collapsed. When evening fell, he came back round and looked for the pistol, in order to finish the job.
Unable to find it, he staggered back to the inn, where a doctor was summoned. So was Vincent’s loyal brother Theo, who arrived the next day. For a brief while, Theo believed that Vincent would rally. But in the end, though, nothing could be done – and, that night, the artist died, aged 37. “I didn’t leave his side until it was all over,” Theo wrote to his wife, Jo. “One of his last words was: ‘this is how I wanted to go’ and it took a few moments and then it was over and he found the peace he hadn’t been able to find on earth.”
Altough Toronto’s fin-de-siecle rush to the top was largely focused on high finance and even higher skycrapers, the city’s art culture has seen notable growth in the past decade.
At the millennium’s dawn, visitors to Toronto seeking business deals or power suits probably departed Pearson International well satisfied. Those anticipating cultural riches befitting Canada’s biggest city were likely underwhelmed, however, as Hogtown’s fin-de-siècle rush to the top was largely focused on high finance and even higher skyscrapers.
Take the venerable Art Gallery of Ontario, for instance. Frank Gehry’s 2008 transformation includes a cocooning spiral staircase and a “billowing glass facade, which evokes a crystal ship drifting through the city,” as The New York Times describes it. The AGO celebrates its rebirth with animated art parties on the first Thursday night of each month, when millennials mix with artists and DJs, try their hand at creativity, and talk hard over drinks and themed street food.
The past decade’s other notable transformations include the Royal Ontario Museum’s striking renovation, and significantly improved acoustics at the Toronto Symphony Orchestra’s Roy Thomson Hall.
There have been major additions too, most notably the Canadian Opera Company’s purpose-built home of glass and light, the Toronto International Film Festival’s centre of screen culture, TIFF Lightbox, and the serene Aga Khan Museum, North America’s only museum dedicated to arts of the Islamic world.
As this renaissance began, Toronto announced its rediscovery of the arts to the world by joining the global network of Nuit Blanche cities in 2006. From Union Station to a Lake Ontario pontoon, this one-night-only revelation of diverse contemporary art now attracts a million curious people each October.
In 2007, the city doubled down with another major event, Luminato. An annual adventure across artistic disciplines, this festival is remarkable for the number of free events and commissioned works.
One’s cultural rediscovery of Toronto should not be limited to big festivals and institutions, however. While the rest of the city was wheeling and dealing, creativity simmered around the west end of Queen Street West, boiling over to become the city’s official Art and Design district; a.k.a. the section between Bathurst and Gladstone.
Locals bemoan the effects of gentrification, which has prompted the recent departure of some enterprises that made West Queen West cool. Indeed, the Museum of Contemporary Canadian Art’s 2015 closure took a little shine off Vogue’s announcement only the year before that this was the world’s second coolest neighbourhood.
There’s still a whole lot to love though, from Stephen Bulger Gallery’s photography to Brodawka & Friends’ handcrafted shoes, the Bellwoods brewpub’s artfully labelled beers (made from hops grown in local backyards), and art hotels the Gladstone and the Drake (which now has a smart resto-bar offshoot downtown, Drake One Fifty). Take an Art Insite walking tour with long-time local Betty Ann Jordan to discover the best of the best.
Street art is also thriving, particularly along Rush Lane just south of Queen West. Better known as Graffiti Alley, and regularly glimpsed as the backdrop of Rick Mercer’s rant, this kilometre-long backstreet is a kaleidoscope of ephemeral colours and styles. A Tour Guys walk reveals the highlights, and provides a primer on street-art’s history, terminology, and fluid cultural status.
The tour may pause at the 401 Richmond creative hub, whose tenants include Spacing. Like the urban-design magazine that spawned it, Spacing’s shop doesn’t hold back on Toronto pride, offering sweet souvenirs such as subway badges and neighbourhood toques. Pride in the new Toronto, where art matters.
A new exhibition of rare Edgar Degas monotypes reveals a more daring and experimental side to the artist.
Ballet Scene, 1879
Edgar Degas is celebrated for his impressionistic studies of ballet dancers, but a new exhibition will reveal lesser-known work. The Museum of Modern Art’s Edgar Degas: A Strange New Beauty will be the first time his monotypes have gone on display in the US in more than 50 years. And while it will feature some familiar subjects, viewers may be surprised to find depictions of brothels and industrialised landscapes hanging on MoMA’s walls. “The exhibition really focuses on Degas’ experimentation, trying to understand the leaps he made in terms of his approach and his technical innovations,” curator Jodi Hauptman tells BBC Culture. “It argues that it’s in his monotypes where he takes the most risk, and where he is the most modern.”
Dancer Onstage with a Bouquet, c 1876
“A monotype is where the artist draws on a metal plate and then sandwiches that metal piece with a damp piece of paper before running through a printing press,” Hauptman explains. While other forms of printmaking involve carving into wood or incising into a metal plate, in monotype the artist simply draws on the plate, allowing changes to be made until the very last moment. Hauptman thinks this encouraged a kind of “spontaneity” in Degas. “It encouraged him to be more free and liberated with his drawing,” she says. “It’s very different from the precise drawing he was trained in as a young artist.”
Autumn Landscape, 1890
Hauptman believes Degas used monotype as a way of “capturing modern life”, and it is in his series of landscapes where he is arguably at his most modern. “For their time, they are really radical as they verge on abstraction,” she explains. In Autumn Landscape, Degas tried to capture the view from a moving train. “You have to think what it would have felt like in the 19th Century for someone who’d only ever moved at the speed of a horse to then move at the speed of a train,” she continues.
Heads of a Man and a Woman, c 1877–80
Movement is a consistent theme in Degas’ work, but particularly in his monotypes. It appears again here, where he has smeared the faces of his subjects. “It’s as if the artist is only catching a glimpse of them as he races by,” Hauptman suggests. This monotype offers a glimpse into what it must have felt like for Degas, living in the rapidly expanding Paris of the 1870s. In many ways, monotype was the perfect medium to, as Hauptman says, “describe the changing nature of contemporary urban life,” due to its fluidity.
Factory Smoke, 1877-79
A Strange New Beauty is MoMA’s first exhibition of these works. It features 120 monotypes along with another 60 related pieces, including paintings, drawings, pastels and sketchbooks. “It’s not that Degas invented monotype, but he just embraced it with such enthusiasm and took it as far as it can go,” Hauptman notes. In Factory Smoke, Degas manipulated the ink to illustrate the movement of smoke across the skies of Paris. “There is a relationship between the way the smoke moves across the plate and how the ink also would have done, so there’s a beautiful meeting there.”
Waiting for the Client, 1879
Degas doesn’t depict prostitutes in any other medium but monotype. Hauptman finds his representation of the brothel and its inhabitants particularly interesting, as they are often cropped or appear on the edge of the work. “There is an emptiness at the centre, and you get sense of the brothel being a place of constant exchange,” she explains. The client is even more peripheral in this work – you can just about see him on the far left edge of the portrait. “The client is often depicted as a little hesitant, while the women are together as a group. I think that says something about that relationship,” she says.
Frieze of Dancers, c 1895
Degas made monotypes in two bursts of activity – in the mid-1870s until the mid-1880s, before returning to it the following decade, using oil paint instead of black printer’s ink. “That’s an important innovation as oil paint responds in a different kind of way to the press,” Hauptman says. According to the curator, Frieze of Dancers is one of the most important works to feature in the exhibition, as it encapsulates the idea of “the multiple and variation in a single work”. Does the painting feature four dancers, three dancers, or just one? That is for the viewer to decide, but Hauptman suggests that you can see it as a single dancer in four different moments. “With that in mind, we might relate the work to contemporary time motion studies of the photographers Muybridge and Marey, who we know Degas was interested in,” she says. As a result, the painting takes on a filmstrip-like quality that alludes to cinema.
The Fireside, c 1880-85
There are two kinds of monotype in Degas’s work: light-field and dark-field. When working with the former, he would draw on a plate just as he would on paper, but the latter was a subtractive process. The result is figures that appear to be emerging out of the darkness, as seen here, in The Fireside.
Three Women in a Brothel, Seen from Behind, c 1877–79
While a monotype only produces one image, Degas would often run the plate a second time using whatever ink was left. This created a ghost image, which he used as a ‘tonal map’ for a new work. Using pastels, Degas would often create something completely new with the second image. “In those pairs you see something that is the same and different. You see the ways he saw possibilities of making more than one form,” Hauptman says. “For Degas, he always saw possibility.”
Under this quality of visual excitement, support and renew it often runs a strong current of feeling close to religion. It may take the form of an ever new wonder-“The mystical quality of the object has always kept me spellbound,” Lyonel Feininger wrote. It may be admitted pantheism of Lee Gatch. It may be the mystical identification Ibram Lassaw self with the whole order of things: “Man is an integral part of the overall ecology of the universe and fulfills its function… with plants, animals, stars and galaxies I nature… ”
This widespread feeling that nature is a more convenient storage of forms, colors or symbols, it has ultimate significance in itself than the visible, but always mysterious manifestation of an eternal order, is reflected in the attitude of these artists for their art. Painting and sculpture, for them, are means to an end – the end being the exploration and revelation of the ultimate meaning that the limits that can be penetrated by reason and intuition.
Such an attitude is in direct opposition to the very exaltation of “the primacy of the environment”, which combines the spokesperson Sonya Rudikoff with abstract expressionism and even with the vanguard of all ages. While the relationship of the abstract expressionists in nature will be discussed later, it is interesting that an artist, Perle Fine, who was closely associated with them, writes: “When I got my studio in the country, and the wonder and grandeur of the natural world captivated me completely, I felt I must find new ways to express these things, “and his recent use of gold and silver in his paintings , was in response to this experience, rather than purely technical claims.
Finally, one can perhaps say that the work of those artists who are consciously and consist mainly with nature tends to be more objective than subjective, although these terms are slippery. In a sense, all art is subjective. Even the search for the essence is deeply involved in the response of the artist about it, “he is interested in what he” feels “about it and painted, therefore, that the result is often called abstract” , said Mark Tobey. At times, the answer seems much more important than what he does, and almost nothing to do with any inherent quality at its source.
When Louise Bourgeois created the garden at night, she was not at all concerned with gardens, but seeks to objectify experience recurrent mixed attraction and fear inspired by the dark mysterious hidden under the plants, even under a clear night sky. Nevertheless, the majority of this group of abstract artists to maintain a certain balance between the inherent nature of things and their own reactions to them.
For the past hundred years, abstract art has been a dominant mode of expression in America. But in its character, most of our abstract painting and sculpture pays small fealty to the concepts of those pure abstractionists, who hold that the work of art should be a completely meaningful object in itself, of solely esthetic significance, hermetically sealed against all other associations.
In Europe, as George Hamilton pointed out in the catalogue of his “Object and Image” exhibition at Yale, this atlitude is historically associated with the early modern movemen in its heroic break with tradition and is diametrically opposed to a more recent trend toward an abstract but evocative imagery which reflects man’s consciousness and inner being. In America,
ew even of our pioneer abstractionists could be called purists. The latter began to appear here only in the 1930’s (many from abroad), and while they still form an active and vital group, they have always been a minority. Our tendency, more marked than ever today, has been toward kinds of abstraction which draw on observed reality to create, variously, a conscious imagery, an unconscious imagery or, at the least, a kind of organic and “natural” teleology of form.
It is our purpose here to determine exactly what the relation is between American abstract, art and one traditionally important aspect of observed reality — nature. The inquiry is not in any sense a reactionary back-to-nature thesis. It is, rather, an effort to understand the character of the abstract vision and especially the personal attitudes and methods of various abstract artists in dealing with nature.
These terms are used in their widest and commonest meanings: “abstraction” to describe any art not clearly based on recognizable visual reality, “nature” as the all-embracing universe about us, the tangible world of land and water, the intangible world of light, sky and air, the eternal forces of germination, growth and death which make up the cycles of life and season — with man and man-made things alone excluded.
It is apparent that this is but part of a larger question, the relation of’ abstract art to all experience. Still, it is a significant part, for the multitudinous aspects of nature are inescapable, a part of every man’s environment. Since the Renaissance they have been the timeless themes of art, and there is ample evidence that they continue to move, and sometimes perplex, many abstract artists just as powerfully.
By focusing on this single but universal area of experience and avoiding the moral and social problems inherent in man and his works, we can perhaps dig deeper and hope to reveal certain truths about the abstract artist’s approach to reality, which will be valid in other areas as well.
Such a restriction does not imply dehumanization, for the artist has always found in nature compelling symbols of man’s own “nature,” especially of his relation to the organic world. And even when symbolism is absent, nature inevitably assumes human meaning as it passes through the artist’s eye, mind and emotions to his canvas. In Balcomb Greene’s words, “One humanizes nature even as he sees it.”
Two museums in Paris have been closed to protect exhibits after the River Seine was predicted to hit a peak of up to 6m (19ft). The Louvre and Orsay museums have moved works to higher floors as a precaution.
The Louvre’s most famous painting, The Mona Lisa, has not been moved as it is housed on the museum’s top floor. The Orsay’s website said it was likely to be shut “at least until Monday”, while the Louvre did not give a reopening date.
“Due to the level of the river Seine, the Musee du Louvre will be exceptionally closed to the public on 3 June to ensure the protection of the works located in flood zones,” it said.
More downpours are forecast for the weekend across a band of central Europe from France to Ukraine.
At least 11 people have died in the past week as a result of the flooding in Europe and several towns in southern Germany have been devastated, with thousands being forced from their homes. Belgium, Austria, the Netherlands and Poland have also been affected.
York’s Jorvik Viking Centre had to close in December after the River Foss flooded. Their chief executive David Jennings said all museums “have a disaster plan”.
“For us, and it’ll be the same for the Louvre, it depends on what your information is and the time frame you have for understanding the disaster that’s about to happen.
“The first thing is to protect the public and your staff. Then, the thing that’s most important is protecting the collection.
“We closed the museum as soon as we could see there was a risk of flooding, and did the same thing the Louvre is doing to move the artefacts from the basement up to a safe place.
“We already had in place the basics of protection from water – and our conversation now is about how we enhance that protection in the future.
“It’s about trying to put in place flood barriers at the entrances and the doors – they are the weak spots of any basemented building.”
Her tricky smile and timeless allure have inspired academic study and artistic emulation for more than five centuries. But the story of this perplexing portrait is even richer than it looks.
“Mona Lisa” Is Not Her Name
The painting’s subject is Lisa Gherardini, whose wealthy—and presumably adoring—husband Francesco Del Giocondo commissioned the work. This explains the less prevalent title for this painting, La Gioconda. The name Mona Lisa (or Monna Lisa, as the Italians prefer) roughly translates to “My Lady Lisa.”
She’s Smaller Than You Might Think
Mona Lisa’s influence in culture is massive, but the oil-on-wood panel painting measures just 30 by 21 inches and weighs 18 pounds.
Her Eyebrows Are A Matter of Debate
Some claim the subject’s lack of eyebrows is representative of high-class fashion of the time. Others insist her AWOL eyebrows are proof that Mona Lisa is an unfinished masterpiece. But in 2007 ultra detailed digital scans of the painting revealed da Vinci had painted on eyebrows and bolder eyelashes. Both had simply faded over time or had fallen victim to years of restoration work.
She’s Broken A Lot of Hearts
The portrait was first put on public display in the Louvre in 1815, inspiring admiration, as a string of “suitors bearing flowers, poems and impassioned notes climbed the grand staircase of the Louvre to gaze into her ‘limpid and burning eyes.’”
“Mona Lisa often made men do strange things,” R. A. Scotti wrote in Vanished Smile, “There were more than one million artworks in the Louvre collection; she alone received her own mail.” The painting actually has its own mailbox at the Louvre because of all the love letters its subject receives.
Men Have Died from Loving Her
In 1852, an artist named Luc Maspero threw himself from the fourth floor of a Parisian hotel, leaving a suicide note that read: “For years I have grappled desperately with her smile. I prefer to die.” Then in 1910, one enamored fan came before her solely to shoot himself as he looked upon her.
It’s Literally Priceless
In the 1960s, the painting went on a tour where it was given an insurance valuation of $100 million. But the policy was never taken out because the premiums were more than the cost of the best security.
The Paiinting Sits in the World’s Prettish Prison
Mona Lisa gets her own room at the Louvre, one that is climate controlled to keep her in the ideal environment. Additionally, the work is encased in bulletproof glass to prevent threat and injury.
She’s Been Attacked
If you look closely at the subject’s left elbow, you might notice the damage done by Ugo Ungaza Villegas, a Bolivian who chucked a rock at the portrait in 1956. A few months before, another art attacker pitched acid at the painting, which hit the lower section. These attacks inspired the bulletproof glass, which in 2009 successfully rebuffed a souvenir mug hurled by an enraged Russian tourist who’d been denied French citizenship.
France Mourned en Masse when She Went Missing
In 1911, Mona Lisa was stolen from the Louvre. The New York Times retroactively compared the public display of grief to that seen in the wake of Princess Diana’s death in 1997. Thousands poured into the Louvre to stare in shock at the blank wall where she once hung and leave flowers, notes, and other remembrances.
Pablo Picasso Was a Suspect in the Caper
Because he’d been caught buying stolen Louvre pieces before, Picasso was brought in for questioning. But the true thief would not be caught until 1913.
Louvre employee Vincenzo Perugia was a proud Italian nationalist who smuggled the painting out under his smock because he felt it belonged to his and da Vinci’s homeland, not France. After hiding it for two years, Perugia was busted trying to sell Mona Lisa to a Florence art dealer. However, he did briefly get his wish. Upon her recovery, Mona Lisa toured Italy before returning to Paris.
Her Terun Inspired a Fashion Trend
In her book Mona Lisa: A Life Discovered, journalist Dianne Hales writes, “Society women adopted the ‘La Joconde look’ [named for the painting’s French title], dusting yellow powder on their faces and necks to suggest her golden complexion and immobilizing their facial muscles to mimic her smile. In Parisian cabarets, dancers dressed as La Joconde performed a saucy can-can…. Something beyond the painting’s wild popularity had changed. The Mona Lisa had left the Louvre a work of art; she returned as a public property, the first mass art icon.”
Her Smile Doesn’t Change, but Your Mindset Does
That is-she-or-isn’t-she smile has long fascinated artists and historians. But in 2000, Harvard neuroscientist Dr. Margaret Livingstone applied a scientific method to why Mona Lisa’s smile seems to shift. It’s all about where your focus is, and how your brain responds.
In the Salon of 1822, Eugene Delacroix ( 1798-1863), exhibited a scene from the Divine Comedy. But there was nothing in this livid vision of Virgil and Dante in Hell very surprising to a public familiar with Caravaggio, and the Raft of the Medusa. It was not until two years later, before the Massacre of Scio, that the critics inveighed against the “massacre of painting”
Delacroix had, in fact, transformed his pictorial language in the interval; inspired by the English landscape painters he had loaded his palette with brilliant colours and illumined Gros’ robust impasto with the glint of Oriental tissues and the marble tints of putrefaction. This time, the work was frankly revolutionary; the young Romanticists rallied round Delacroix, and the struggle against the classical tradition began; no durable school resulted from it, but the consequences were such as to transform the very conception of art.
To these young Romanticists art was not the realisation of an abstract ideal, but the expression of an individual soul, and the more original the artist, the greater the value of his works. He should not fear to manifest his vigorous personality; on the contrary, he should defend it jealously against external influences, against all the forces that, by limiting his personality, tend to obscure his genius.
Romanticism was the revolt of sensitive faculties, hitherto disciplined by the play of definite ideas. Latent and irresponsible forces rose from unconscious depths to reject classical logic. For logic, with its fixed principles, is identical among all men; it has a sort of eternal existence, superior to the minds which successively exercise it; and the Romanticist affects to despise this faculty which makes individuals similar.
During the second half of the nineteenth century, scholars gradually supplanted poets in the general governance of minds. The Romanticist, Victor Hugo or Delacroix, like Narcissus bending over his fountain, only looked at Nature to see the reflection of himself. To him, the universe was but a storehouse of images on which he drew to give colour to his poetry. When these exuberant personalities had sobered down, reality appeared to them, and interested them.
The landscape painters had set the example; following in their wake, painters and sculptors, as well as writers, began to think that absolute exactitude was the true ambition of art; this submission to the object is a scientist’s virtue, and, indeed, Naturalism is the artistic form of the positive spirit.
During this period, the continuity of French life was interrupted by sudden revolutions. Artists were not, of course, unmoved by the agitations which keep us poised, as it were, between revolution and compression; but the convulsions of social fury did not disturb the radiant summits of art.
Architecture, which always expresses the general character of communities clearly, was at once very prolific, and somewhat lacking in originality; this seems to show that the general existence was not so unstable as it seemed to be, and that society had not yet evolved a new form of collective life. These abrupt changes were after all only a question of political régime, a battle of pure theory or of personal interest. Governments, whatever they are, must always have one and the same object, which is to aid in the increase of riches.
The conflicting movements which agitated superficial France must not be allowed to hide that deep current, the slow pressure of which nothing can resist. Every day, a rather larger number of men achieve a little ease, or in other words, a relative prosperity and an average intellectual culture. This was the great social event of the nineteenth century, and modern art was to manifest this indefinite enfranchisement of the middle classes after its fashion.
How to decorate with a coffee house cafe theme in your kitchen is easy to learn and implement. If you love all the different types of coffees, or just simply love the feel of your favorite morning stop, you can have a room that is inspired from your passion.
Choosing the colors when you want to know how to decorate with a coffee house cafe theme in your kitchen can be based on what you already have. When decorating with this style, and if you can completely remodel your kitchen, you can choose your favorite. But if you are stuck with what you have, almost any color can be made to fit. The trick is in the accessories and the finishing touches.
The first step, if you are able to, is to get a small table and chair set that sits one to four people. A wrought iron one, with a glass top, that is usually used outside fits well in this style. Throw a couple of comfortable seat cushions on the chairs to make it practical. The only centerpiece that you need is a sugar and creamer tray set in the center. If you want an extra touch of elegance, place a single flower in a bud vase to complete the look.
Next, have a small shelf within easy reach of the sitting area. Place a few favorite poetry books or novels there for morning enjoyment. Don’t forget a place to set your favorite newspaper on.
Having a home bar can be fun. It is a wonderful place to spend time with your family or having friends over to relax and enjoy a few cocktails. To make the most of your home bar, you should take the time to decorate it in a way that truly reflects your personality while at the same time creating a fun and relaxing. Check out these decorating ideas bar to get some ideas on how to decorate your bar.
Before you even think to start decorating, you should take a moment to consider how you plan to use space and what your personal style is. Looking for a feeling sports bar? Or maybe you are more Class A, feeling more upscale. Think bars, restaurants and clubs you’ve visited and see which ones stand out in your mind. Once you understand the style you like to decorate your bar will become much easier.
One of the most important parts of a bar of the house is the living room. You want everyone to be comfortable and relaxed. Bar stool at the bar are great, but you should also consider adding some additional seats near the bar if space permits. Lounge chairs covered in zebra print pleasure or brightly colored fabric can provide an eclectic feeling in your room.
For a sports bar, a large comfortable sofa with lots of space is an interesting option to give a few extra seats. When you choose your seats for your bar trying to find parts that are relatively easy to get up. There’s nothing worse than drinking a glass or two and find that you have sunk down into a sofa upholstered as it is difficult to escape!
The artwork that you chose for the walls will also depend heavily on the atmosphere you are trying to create. Vintage posters or framed prints framed in Nice can be a class, so timeless to decorate the walls. If space is on the small side consider hanging around some mirrors visually expand the size of the space. Always try to hang pictures or mirrors approximately at eye level for the average person to avoid having it look like it is too high or too low.