Tag: fine art prints
The accolade is a ceremony to confer knighthood that may take many forms including, for example, the tapping of the flat side of a sword on the shoulders of a candidate or an embrace about the neck.
In the first example, the “knight-elect” kneels in front of the monarch on a knighting-stool when the ceremony is performed. First, the monarch lays the flat side of the sword’s blade onto the accolade’s right shoulder. They then raise the sword gently just up over the apprentice’s head and places it then on his left shoulder. The new knight then stands up after being promoted, and the King or Queen presents him with the insignia of his new order.
There is some disagreement amongst historians on the actual ceremony and in what time period certain methods could have been used. It could have been an embrace or a slight blow on the neck or cheek. In knighting his son Henry, with the ceremony of the accolade, history records that William the Conqueror used the blow.
The blow, or colée, when first utilized was given with a naked fist. It was a forceful box on the ear or neck that one would remember. This was later substituted for by a gentle stroke with the flat part of the sword against the side of the neck. This then developed into the custom of tapping on either the right or left shoulder or both, which is still the tradition in Great Britain today.
An early Germanic coming-of-age ceremony, of presenting a youth with a weapon that was buckled on him, was elaborated in the 10th and 11th centuries as a sign that the minor had come of age. Initially this was a simple rite often performed on the battlefield, where writers of Romance enjoyed placing it. A panel in the Bayeux Tapestry shows the knighting of Harold by William of Normandy, but the specific gesture is not clearly represented. Another military knight (commander of an army), sufficiently impressed by a warrior’s loyalty, would strike a fighting soldier on the head or his back and shoulder with his hand and announce that he was now an official knight. Some words that might be spoken at that moment were Advances Chevalier au nom de Dieu.
The increasingly impressive ceremonies surrounding adoubement figured largely in the Romance literature, both in French and in Middle English, particularly those set in the Trojan War or around the legendary personage of Alexander the Great.
In the Netherlands the knights in the exclusive Military Order of William (the Dutch “Victoria Cross”) are striken on both shoulders with the palm of the hand, first by the Dutch monarch (if present) then by the other knights. The new knight does not kneel.
Edvard Munch, 12 December 1863 – 23 January 1944) was a Norwegian Symbolist painter, printmaker and an important forerunner of expressionistic art. His best-known composition, The Scream, is part of a series The Frieze of Life, in which Munch explored the themes of love, fear, death, melancholia, and anxiety.
The Norwegian artist Edvard Munch is regarded as a pioneer in the Expressionist movement in modern painting. At an early stage Munch was recognized in Germany and central Europe as one of the creators of a new epoch. His star is still on the ascendant in the other European countries, and in the rest of the world. Munch’s art from the 1890s is the most well known, but his later work is steadily attracting greater attention, and it appears to inspire present-day artists in particular.
Michelangelo illustrates simultaneously Original Sin (Genesis 3:1-13) and the banishment of Adam and Eve from the Garden of Eden (Genesis 3:22-24), two moments that are decidedly divided in the bible tale, thus showing together the cause and the effect generated.
The two episodes are separated by the tree of good and evil, around which the serpent is wrapped. He is offering the forbidden fruit to Eve who, against the order of the Lord, will take it to eat it and offer it also to her companion. On the other side of the panel the forefathers, hunted by an angel with an unsheathed sword, leave the Garden of Eden, pained and bent under the burden of remorse for the sin committed.
“The serpent was more subtle than any other wild creature that the Lord God had made. He said to the woman: ‘Did God say: ‘You shall not eat of any tree of the garden’?’. And the woman said to the serpent: ‘We may eat of the fruit of the trees of the garden; but God said, ‘You shall not eat of the fruit of the tree which is in the midst of the garden, neither shall you touch it, lest you die’. But the serpent said to the woman: ‘You will not die! … you will be like God, knowing good and evil’. So the woman … took of its fruit and ate; and she also gave some to her husband…” (Genesis 3:1-6)…”The Lord God sent him forth from the garden of Eden … he drove out the man; and at the east of the garden of Eden he placed the cherubim, and a flaming sword which turned every way, to guard the way to the tree of life” (Genesis 3:23-24)
Original sin, sometimes called ancestral sin, is, according to a doctrine proposed in Christian theology, humanity’s state of sin resulting from the Fall of Man. This condition has been characterized in many ways, ranging from something as insignificant as a slight deficiency, or a tendency toward sin yet without collective guilt, referred to as a “sin nature,” to something as drastic as total depravity or automatic guilt by all humans through collective guilt.
Those who uphold this doctrine look to the teaching of Paul the Apostle in Romans 5:12-21 and 1 Corinthians 15:22 for its scriptural base, and see it as perhaps implied in an Old Testament passage Psalm 51:5.
Some Christians do not accept the doctrine indicated by the terms “original sin” or “ancestral sin”, which are not found in the Bible. The same applies to terms such as “Trinity” used to express other Christian doctrines. The doctrine is not found in other religions, such as Judaism, and Hinduism.
In the theology of the Catholic Church, original sin is regarded as the general condition of sinfulness, that is (the absence of holiness and perfect charity) into which humans are born, distinct from the actual sins that a person commits. This teaching explicitly states that “original sin does not have the character of a personal fault in any of Adam’s descendants”. In other words, human beings do not bear any “original guilt” from Adam and Eve’s particular sin. The prevailing view, also held in Eastern Orthodoxy, is that human beings bear no guilt for the sin of Adam and Eve.
Although Orthodoxy prefers using the term “ancestral sin”, which indicates that “original sin is hereditary. It did not remain only Adam and Eve’s. As life passes from them to all of their descendants, so does original sin ” In this quotation, “original sin” is used not of the personal sin of Adam, which is his alone and is not transmitted, but in reference to the “distortion of the nature of man”, which is inherited.
An important exposition of the belief of Eastern Christians identifies original sin as physical and spiritual death, the spiritual death being the loss of “the grace of God, which quickened (the soul) with the higher and spiritual life”. Others see original sin also as the cause of actual sins: “a bad tree bears bad fruit” (Matthew 7:17, NIV), although, in this view, original and actual sin may be difficult to distinguish.