Tag: fine art
In the Salon of 1822, Eugene Delacroix ( 1798-1863), exhibited a scene from the Divine Comedy. But there was nothing in this livid vision of Virgil and Dante in Hell very surprising to a public familiar with Caravaggio, and the Raft of the Medusa. It was not until two years later, before the Massacre of Scio, that the critics inveighed against the “massacre of painting”
Delacroix had, in fact, transformed his pictorial language in the interval; inspired by the English landscape painters he had loaded his palette with brilliant colours and illumined Gros’ robust impasto with the glint of Oriental tissues and the marble tints of putrefaction. This time, the work was frankly revolutionary; the young Romanticists rallied round Delacroix, and the struggle against the classical tradition began; no durable school resulted from it, but the consequences were such as to transform the very conception of art.
To these young Romanticists art was not the realisation of an abstract ideal, but the expression of an individual soul, and the more original the artist, the greater the value of his works. He should not fear to manifest his vigorous personality; on the contrary, he should defend it jealously against external influences, against all the forces that, by limiting his personality, tend to obscure his genius.
Romanticism was the revolt of sensitive faculties, hitherto disciplined by the play of definite ideas. Latent and irresponsible forces rose from unconscious depths to reject classical logic. For logic, with its fixed principles, is identical among all men; it has a sort of eternal existence, superior to the minds which successively exercise it; and the Romanticist affects to despise this faculty which makes individuals similar.
During the second half of the nineteenth century, scholars gradually supplanted poets in the general governance of minds. The Romanticist, Victor Hugo or Delacroix, like Narcissus bending over his fountain, only looked at Nature to see the reflection of himself. To him, the universe was but a storehouse of images on which he drew to give colour to his poetry. When these exuberant personalities had sobered down, reality appeared to them, and interested them.
The landscape painters had set the example; following in their wake, painters and sculptors, as well as writers, began to think that absolute exactitude was the true ambition of art; this submission to the object is a scientist’s virtue, and, indeed, Naturalism is the artistic form of the positive spirit.
During this period, the continuity of French life was interrupted by sudden revolutions. Artists were not, of course, unmoved by the agitations which keep us poised, as it were, between revolution and compression; but the convulsions of social fury did not disturb the radiant summits of art.
Architecture, which always expresses the general character of communities clearly, was at once very prolific, and somewhat lacking in originality; this seems to show that the general existence was not so unstable as it seemed to be, and that society had not yet evolved a new form of collective life. These abrupt changes were after all only a question of political régime, a battle of pure theory or of personal interest. Governments, whatever they are, must always have one and the same object, which is to aid in the increase of riches.
The conflicting movements which agitated superficial France must not be allowed to hide that deep current, the slow pressure of which nothing can resist. Every day, a rather larger number of men achieve a little ease, or in other words, a relative prosperity and an average intellectual culture. This was the great social event of the nineteenth century, and modern art was to manifest this indefinite enfranchisement of the middle classes after its fashion.
Francisco Goya, considered to be “the Father of Modern Art,” began his painting career just after the late Baroque period. In expressing his thoughts and feelings frankly, as he did, he became the pioneer of new artistic tendencies which were to come to fruition in the 19th century. Two trends dominated the art of his contradictory; they actually were not. Together they represented the reaction against previous conceptions of art and the desire for a new form of expression.
In order to understand the scope of Goya’s art, and to appreciate the principles which governed his development and tremendous versatility, it is essential to realise that his work extended over a period of more than 60 years, for he continued to draw and paint until his 82nd year.
The importance of this factor is evident between his attitude towards life in his youth, when he accepted the world as it was quite happily, in his manhood when he began to criticise it, and in his old age when he became embittered and disillusioned with people and society. Furthermore, the world changed completely during his lifetime. The society, in which he had achieved a great success disappeared during the Napoleonic war. Long before the end of the 18th century Goya had already turned towards his new ideals and expressed them in his graphic art and in his paintings.
As an artist, Goya was by temperament far removed from the classicals. In a few works he approached Classical style, but in the greater part of his work the Romantic triumphed.
Born in Zaragoza, Spain, he found employment as a young teenager under the mediocre artist José Luzán, from whom he learned to draw and as was customary, copied prints of several masters.
At the age of 17 he went to Madrid. His style was influenced by two painters who were working there. The last of the great Venetian painters—Tiepolo and the rather cold and efficient neo-classical painter—Antonio Raphael Mengs. In 1763 he entered a competition at the Royal Academy of San Fernando, and failed, as he did in the year 1766. In 1770, he want to Rome and survived by living off his works of art.
Art Nouevau is decorative-art movement centered in Western Europe. It began in the 1880s as a reaction against the historical emphasis of mid-19th-century art, but did not survive World WarI. Art nouveau originated in London and was variously called Jugendstil in Germany, Sezessionstil in Austria, and Modernismo in Spain.
In general it was most successfully practiced in the decorative arts: furniture, jewelry, and book design and illustration. The style was richly ornamental and asymmetrical, characterized by a whiplash linearity reminiscent of twining plant tendrils. Its exponents chose themes fraught with symbolism, frequently of an erotic nature. They imbued their designs with dreamlike and exotic forms.
The outstanding designers of art nouveau in England include the graphic artist Aubrey Beardsley, A. H. Mackmurdo, Charles Ricketts, Walter Crane, and the Scottish architect Charles R. Mackintosh; in Belgium the architects Henry Van de Velde and Victor Horta; in France the architect and designer of the Paris métro entrances, Hector Guimard, and the jewelry designer René Lalique; in Austria the painter Gustav Klimt; in Spain the architect Antonio Gaudí; in Germany the illustrator Otto Eckmann and the architect Peter Behrens; in Italy the originator of the ornamental Floreale style, Giuseppe Sommaruga; and in the United States Louis Sullivan, whose architecture was dressed with art nouveau detail, and the designer of elegant glassware Louis C. Tiffany.
The aesthetics of the movement were disseminated through various illustrated periodicals including The Century Guild Hobby Horse (1894), The Dial (1889), The Studio (begun, 1893), The Yellow Book (1894–95), and The Savoy (1896–98). The works of Beardsley and Tiffany were especially popular.
Dalí, May 11, 1904, in Spain’s Catalonia region located in the town of Figueres, Salvador Dalí and Felipa Domenech Ferres i Cusí couple’s second child came into the world. The couple’s first child was born in 1901, Dalí’s birth, nine months and ten days ago (August 1, 1903), died of inflammation of the digestive tract, it is a name that Salvador had been the second child.
The first children at a young age to die a kind of acceptance can not Dalí couple of small Dali by frequent dead brother talking about the first Salvador’s a picture of the bedroom walls of the sheds, and Dalí’yle together regularly for the first Salvador’s tomb visits were. This, in Dalí’s early years led to confusion about their identity. Later, I did not know about his brother “were alike as two drops of water, but reflected was different. It was probably my first version was designed to be more positive.” I would write.
Dali’s father, a notary public was tough and authoritarian character. Unlike the full understanding and compassionate mother and son had given support to the efforts of the painting. Dali’s sister Ana María was born three years old. House as the only male child, mother, sister, aunt, grandmother, friends and carers of interest from the permanent Dalí, spoiled and capricious since a young age began to display a character.
1914 with the support of his mother to a special school post pictures of the Dali opened his first exhibition at the Municipal Theater in Figueres in 1919. In February 1921 of his beloved mother died of breast cancer. About his mother’s death “was the biggest blow I received in my life. I used to adore him. There may make my soul will not appear inevitable flaws always accept the loss of a being I could not trust.” I would write. Dali’s father, shortly after the death of his wife’s sister married.
Michelangelo’s Sistine Chapel fresco is both a masterpiece and the object of one of the fiercest-ever campaigns about morality and decency. The unveiling of Michelangelo’s Sistine Chapel fresco in 1541 revealed a masterpiece and a colossal scandal. Michelangelo di Ludovico Buonarroti Simone was a sculptor, architect and engineer and considered painting a lower form of artistic representation; for this reason he considered Pope Julius II’s commission to paint the Sistine Chapel ceiling in 1506 in Saint Peter’s Basilica a humiliation. He nevertheless agreed and signed the contract of his life with the Catholic Church.
The Making of a Masterpiece: Perfection Was Not Enough
The maestro spent endless hours on a scaffold (which he engineered himself) almost 20 meters in the air and worked incessantly from 1508 to 1512 under less-than-ideal conditions. Natural light was poor and the only artificial light available were dozens of burning candles, and because the ceiling plaster had to be a fresco (created in damp plaster), wet paint was constantly dripping on Michelangelo.
The work was daunting, but Michelangelo was no common mortal. It was customary to work with one or more assistants for large projects, but he went solo with the massive project after dismissing six assistants he had summoned from Florence to help him with the fresco technique. He was not satisfied with the work they had begun, and, having seen everything he needed to know, he liquidated them and worked in solitude until the project was completed. Through the affresco technique of the time, Michelangelo single-handedly painted the doctrine of the Catholic Church on the 1,100 square-meter chapel ceiling. From 1508 to 1541 he painted some 300 figures illustrating narrative scenes from the Book of Genesis to the Last Judgment.
He worked longer than was expected of him, much to his and the pontiff’s frustration. For Michelangelo, perfection was not an option – for the pope it was a matter of life and death. Pope Julius II didn’t live to see Michelangelo’s work. He was succeeded by Pope Leo X who was shortly succeeded by Pope Clement VII who commissioned the Maestro with painting the Last Judgment on the altar of the Sistine Chapel. But time also ran out for Clement VII and he died before seeing the finished work. Pope Paul III oversaw the work which commenced in 1536 and was finished in 1541 with the Last Judgment.
What should have been Michelangelo’s shining moment became his darkest hour. A scandal descended upon the Vatican when the work in the Sistine Chapel was finally unveiled. Michelangelo’s heaven had no rage nor hell had fury like the Vatican’s wrath. Saints and sinners with nothing on but their skin were scattered across the sacral walls and ceiling, the fresco seemed “better suited to a bathroom or roadside wine shop than to a chapel of the Pope.”said at the time a papal master of ceremonies. The maestro’s skill in anatomy was aparent in all its glory. The unclad figures resembled classical pagan gods and there was little if anything of the canonical biblical figures gracing the walls elsewhere in the Vatican.
Michelangelo did not seek inspiration from the established representations of sacral art of the time but from infinite readings and interpretations of the Old Testament His humanist upbringing had been shaped in the milieu of the de Medici humanist academy in Florence. The nude figures had a symbolic meaning that was largely misunderstood by Church officials who called the artist “inventore delle porcherie” (inventor of obscenities). Michelangelo’s artistic output reflected a reconciliation between Christian theology and classical rationalism. There was no room in Michelangelo’s heaven and hell for clothes but only for souls awaiting their fate.
For Michelangelo was a Florentine, and many of the major episodes of his life took place in the very buildings and squares. Nearly half of the statues made by Michelangelo now stand in Florence: at the Academia, in the Medici Chapel, in the Casa Buonarroti (Michelangelo’s family name being Buonarroti), in the Duomo, and in the Bargello. A painting of his hangs in the Uffizi Galleries. When you have read the fascinating background of these masterpieces, which is related to the turbulent times of Renaissance Florence, you’ll receive an unparalelled thrill from seeing them before your very eyes.
Anyone going up to the Piazzale Michelangelo should also see the lovely Romanesque church, San Miniato al Monte; it and the seven Michelangelo statues in the San Lorenzo Chapels were the high points of an an entire trip.
We found nearly every shop was also a small factory, particularly in San Croce Square, where we spent the day watching mosaics, leather, silver and ceramics craftsmen at work. This cost nothing: you are shown the working processes in the hope you’ll later buy something in the retail display room-just as in Murano.
Don’t miss the view of Florence from the top of the Cathedral of Santa Karia del Fiore. Climb to the cupola on top of tpe Duomo. It’s 436 steps up, but the view is well worth it.
The Garden of Eden is described in the Book of Genesis as being the place where the first man, Adam, and his wife, Eve, lived after they were created by God. Literally, the Bible speaks about a garden in Eden (Gen. 2:8). This garden forms part of the Genesis creation narrative and theodicy of the Abrahamic religions, often being used to explain the origin of sin and mankind’s wrongdoings. The Archangel Uriel, with his flaming sword, is said to be guarding the Gate to the Garden of Eden.’
The Genesis creation narrative relates the geographical location of both Eden and the garden to four rivers (Pishon, Gihon, Tigris, Euphrates), and three regions (Havilah, Assyria, and Kush). There are hypotheses that place Eden at the headwaters of the Tigris and Euphrates (northern Mesopotamia), in Iraq (Mesopotamia), Africa, and the Persian Gulf. For many medieval writers, the image of the Garden of Eden also creates a location for human love and sexuality, often associated with the classic and medieval trope of the locus amoenus.
fine art, il redentore, italian art, Leonardo Da Vinci, Renaissance Art
Picasso’s Rose Period
The Rose Period lasted from 1904 to 1906. Picasso was happy in his relationship with Fernande Olivier whom he had met in 1904 and this has been suggested as one of the possible reasons he changed his style of painting. Harlequins, circus performers and clowns appear frequently in the Rose Period and populated Picasso’s paintings at various stages throughout the rest of his long career. The harlequin, a comedic character usually depicted in checkered patterned clothing, became a personal symbol for Picasso.
The Rose Period has been considered French influenced, while the Blue Period more Spanish influenced, although both styles emerged while Picasso was living in Paris. Picasso’s Blue Period began in late 1901, following the death of his friend Carlos Casagemas and the onset of a bout of major depression. It lasted until 1904, when Picasso’s psychological condition improved. The Rose Period is named after Picasso’s heavy use of pink tones in his works from this period, from the French word for pink, which is rose.
Picasso’s highest selling painting, Garçon à la pipe (Boy with a pipe) was painted during the Rose Period. Other significant Rose Period works include: Woman in a Chemise (Madeleine) (1904–05), The Actor (1904–1905), Lady with a Fan (1905), Two Youths (1905), Harlequin Family (1905), Harlequin’s Family With an Ape (1905), La famille de saltimbanques (1905), Boy with a Dog (1905), Nude Boy (1906), Boy Leading a Horse (1905-06), and The Girl with a Goat (1906).
Jacob’s Ladder is a ladder to heaven, described in the Book of Genesis, that the biblical patriarch Jacob envisions during his flight from his brother Esau.
The description of Jacob’s ladder appears in the Book of Genesis (28:11–19): Jacob left Beersheba, and went toward Haran. He came to the place and stayed there that night, because the sun had set. Taking one of the stones of the place, he put it under his head and lay down in that place to sleep.
And he dreamed that there was a ladder set up on the earth, and the top of it reached to heaven; and behold, the angels of God were ascending and descending on it! And behold, the Lord stood above it [or “beside him”] and said, “I am the Lord, the God of Abraham your father and the God of Isaac; the land on which you lie I will give to you and to your descendants; and your descendants shall be like the dust of the earth, and you shall spread abroad to the west and to the east and to the north and to the south; and by you and your descendants shall all the families of the earth bless themselves.
Behold, I am with you and will keep you wherever you go, and will bring you back to this land; for I will not leave you until I have done that of which I have spoken to you.” Then Jacob awoke from his sleep and said, “Surely the Lord is in this place; and I did not know it.” And he was afraid, and said, “This is none other than the house of God, and this is the gate of heaven.”
Afterwards, Jacob names the place, “Bethel” (literally, “House of God”).